Thursday, 15 June 2023

Published June 15, 2023 by with 0 comment

Handling Dynamic Web Elements: Techniques for dealing with dynamic web elements that change their attributes or locations during runtime.


In web application testing, dynamic web elements that change their attributes or locations during runtime can pose challenges. However, with the right techniques and strategies, we can effectively handle these dynamic elements using Selenium in Java. In this blog post, we will explore various techniques and provide code snippets to handle dynamic web elements successfully.

Understanding Dynamic Web Elements:

Dynamic web elements refer to elements on a webpage that change their attributes or locations dynamically. This can occur due to dynamic content loading, AJAX calls, page refreshes, or changes in the DOM structure. Examples of dynamic elements include dropdowns, menus, pop-ups, modals, or elements that load asynchronously.

Techniques for Handling Dynamic Web Elements:

1. Implicit and Explicit Waits:

Both implicit and explicit waits are essential for handling dynamic web elements. Implicit waits allow the driver to wait for a specified amount of time for an element to be present on the page. Explicit waits enable you to wait for specific conditions to be met before proceeding. Here's an example of using explicit wait with ExpectedConditions in Selenium:

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;

WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 10);
WebElement element = wait.until(ExpectedConditions.visibilityOfElementLocated(By.cssSelector("[data-testid='dynamic-element']")));

2. Dynamic XPath or CSS Selectors:

XPath and CSS selectors are powerful techniques for locating elements. When dealing with dynamic elements, you can utilize dynamic values within XPath or CSS selectors to locate the element. Here's an example using XPath with a dynamic attribute value:

WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//input[contains(@class, 'dynamic-input-')]"));

3. Relational Locators:

Dynamic elements are often located relative to other stable elements on the page. By identifying the stable parent or sibling elements, you can navigate to the dynamic element using XPath or CSS selectors. Here's an example using XPath with a relational locator:

WebElement parentElement = driver.findElement("parent-element")); WebElement dynamicElement = parentElement.findElement(By.xpath(".//span[contains(@class, 'dynamic-span')]"));

4. Refreshing the DOM:

In some cases, dynamic elements may not be immediately available in the DOM. You can try refreshing the DOM by reloading the page or waiting for a specific event to trigger the appearance of the dynamic element. Here's an example of refreshing the page to handle dynamic content:

driver.navigate().refresh(); WebElement element = driver.findElement("dynamic-element"));

5. JavaScript Execution:

JavaScript can be used to interact with dynamic elements directly. By executing JavaScript commands using Selenium, you can manipulate the DOM or trigger events on dynamic elements. Here's an example of executing JavaScript code to handle a dynamic element:

JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver; WebElement element = (WebElement) js.executeScript("return document.getElementById('dynamic-element')");


Handling dynamic web elements is crucial for successful web application testing using Selenium in Java. By applying the techniques discussed above and utilizing the provided code snippets, you can effectively handle dynamic elements that change their attributes or locations during runtime. It is important to adapt these techniques to your specific application and regularly update your automation strategy as the dynamic elements evolve. With these approaches and a proactive approach, you can create robust and reliable automated tests, even in the presence of dynamic web elements.


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